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Article Text

Original article
Severity and pattern of injuries caused by Swiss wrestling (Schwingen): first retrospective study at a level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland

Background This article addresses typical injury patterns related to the traditional Swiss folk wrestling, ‘Schwingen’. This is a fight between two competitors with its own rules, grips and throws. A variety of injuries have been occasionally reported. The aim of this study was to characterise all cases of Schwingen injuries treated in the University Hospital of Bern from January 2006 to July 2016.

Methods To assess the frequency, type and outcome of Schwingen injuries, database search was performed of all inpatient and outpatient cases related to Schwingen that were admitted to Bern University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016.

Results A total of 32 such patients could be identified. Apart from a single woman, all patients were male. 31 of the 32 players were Swiss. One patient was admitted to the intermediate care unit, eight patients underwent surgery, two were hospitalised for further treatment and two were given a plaster. 17 other patients were given medications such as painkillers. One was dismissed without further treatment and another one left the hospital on his own. Typical injury patterns varied from simple lesions to distortions and fractures as well as head injuries and other neurological complications.

Conclusion The majority of injuries caused by Schwingen are not life threatening. Nevertheless, there is always the potential of head injuries and neurological deficits. Apart from the economic loss due to treatment costs and sick leave, these injuries can be disabling for life. It should therefore be obligatory for all players to evaluate preventive measures.

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

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What are the new findings?

This is the first in-depth assessment of characteristic Schwingen (Swiss wrestling) sport injury cases admitted to a level I trauma centre in Switzerland.

2012 1) Danny Norlander, "ServingGod and Mammon: The Reformed Church and the Dutch West India Company in the Atlantic World, 1621 – 1674," (Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, 2011).

2012 2) Evan Haefeli, New Netherland and the Dutch Origin of American Religious Liberty (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).

2013 Susanah Shaw Romney,“Intimate Networks: Personal Relationships and Atlantic Ties in New Netherland, 1609 -1664” subsequently published as New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America .

2014 Jeroen Dewulf,"The Pinkster King and the King of Kongo: African-American Performance Culture and the Master-Slave Relationship in Dutch-American Society from New Amsterdam to New York."

2015 Donna Merwick, Stuyvesant Bound: An Essay on Loss Across Time (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013).

2016 Deborah Hamer, "Creating an Orderly Society: The Regulation of Marriage and Sex in the Dutch Atlantic World, 1621–1674”(Ph.D. dissertation,Columbia University, 2014).

2017 Kenneth Shefsiek, Stuart Weitzman LaceUp Multistrap Sandals Top Quality Cheap Price Cheap How Much 5bALMCriO
(SUNY Press, 2017).

The ancient Dutch game of colf

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For a quarter century NNI has helped cast light on America's Dutch roots. In 2010, it partnered with the New York State Office of Cultural Education to establish the New Netherland Research Center, with matching funds from the State of the Netherlands. NNI is registered as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law.

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Last modified on Tue 17 December 2013 9:55 pm

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March 27, 2006 at 3:28 pm

If you are dealing with small amounts, like those mentioned above, then the conversions are okay. But according to the authors of “The New Best Recipe” (the same people who write Cook’s Illustrated), there can be a big difference between brands of kosher salt. I know that for Diamond Crystal kosher salt, they gave a conversion ratio of 2:1. That is, use 2 teaspoons of kosher salt if a recipe calls for 1 teaspoon of table salt. For a different brand of kosher salt (I think it was Morton’s), they gave a conversion ratio of 1.5:1 — the same one that you mentioned.

Again, this really won’t make a big difference if you are measuring in teaspoons, but if you want to brine something and are using a cup or two of salt, then it can make a difference.

Don’t you love how people go nuts over salt grinders? They don’t seem to understand that salt is a rock and it’s not any fresher if you grind it yourself. Love your site!

September 30, 2014 at 9:50 pm

Hi iPont,

Great comments about the difference in salts. I am one of those people who enjoy my salt grinder not because I think it is any fresher, it just reduces the size of the salt when I add it to finished dishes. I also like the feel of grinding the salt as I do grinding pepper. – RG

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The Prof is correct when it comes to basic table salt v kosher v sea, but there are literally scores, maybe hundreds of gourmet salt varieties. I’ve never actually used them, but I’ve seen them in gourmet stores and on Iron Chef. They are amost always colored due to impurities being left in the crystal structure.

March 31, 2006 at 4:40 am

Don’t make fun of my Salt Grinder! I love it! I know it doesn’t make salt fresher, but it’s what every gal needs…a gimmick!

March 31, 2006 at 7:32 am

Yes, I love the salt grinders for entertainment value. There’s a very well known spice brand sold here in Africa that recently added “Freshly Ground Atlantic Sea Salt” to their extensive product range. Now, no weekend meal with friends is complete without the hilarity of a discussion about the need to use such freshly ground salt on our food. Mock tantrums have ensued when one or other guests were forced to use pre ground salt to sprinkle over their plate instead of the freshly ground that their delicate palates favour. What a laugh. I wonder how many people find a ‘genuine advantage’ in freshly grinding their salt not realising they’ve being suckered.

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